Ternary lithium batteries and lithium iron phosphate batteries, can they still hold their dominance?
In the competition of new energy market,each company is also to make every effort,not for any other reason,in order to be able to fight for a place in this highly competitive market.With the development of electric vehicles, people are also paying more and more attention to the three major parts ofelectric vehicle , and power batteries are an important part of them.
There are roughly the following types of power batteries on the market, namely ternary lithium batteries, lithium iron phosphate batteries, lithium cobalt oxide batteries, nickel-metal hydride batteries, and solid-state batteries.
But electric vehicles mainly use ternary lithium batteries and lithium iron phosphate batteries, which is also the result of the market survival, and now the news of solid-state batteries is coming again, this time, will the power battery market will change dramatically?
First of all, let's talk about what ternary lithium batteries and lithium iron phosphate batteries are.
Ternary lithium battery refers to the use of nickel, cobalt and manganese three transition metal oxides for the cathode materials of lithium secondary batteries, where "ternary" refers to the polymer containing nickel , cobalt, manganese or aluminum three metal elements.The purpose of adding nickel to the battery is to increase the battery power storage in order to improve battery life.
Ternary lithium batteries are divided into NCM and NCA.Ternary lithium batteries have the advantages of small size, light weight, low temperature resistance, high energy density, high charge and discharge efficiency, etc., which can effectively reduce the weight of the electric vehicles.
However, because of its lack of high temperature resistance, its safety is poor,as well as the short battery life and high cost.
Lithium iron phosphate batteries are lithium ion batteries that use lithium iron phosphate as the cathode material. It has the advantages of high temperature resistance, long battery cycle life and high safety, and the thermal runaway temperature can reach over 800 degrees. In addition, the battery will not explode or spontaneously combust when the battery is damaged internally or externally. It is considered to be the safest lithium battery at present. And because it does not contain precious metal materials, the cost of raw materials is lower, roughly 200 yuan per kwH than ternary lithium batteries. Reduces the production cost of the tram. The energy density of lithium iron phosphate batteries is not as good as lithium ternary batteries, in the same volume of the two batteries, lithium ternary batteries have a higher energy density, the EV's power storage capacity is stronger, and naturally the range is longer.
The two major battery technologies have their own advantages, and they are currently competing for dominance in the power battery market.
With the gradual weakening of new energy policy subsidies,EV equipped with ternary lithium batteries will have no advantage in price, and the production capacity and cost of lithium iron phosphate batteries are also being continuously optimized.
The blade batteries, which are also lithium iron phosphate batteries, are also gradually catching up in energy density, prompting the competition in the power battery market to become more and more intense.
However, both ternary lithium batteries and lithium iron phosphate batteries are liquid batteries, and the energy density is still not as high as solid-state batteries. If the development of solid-state batteries to speed up some more, the situation might be different.
Solid-state battery is actually a kind of battery that uses solid electrodes and solid electrolytes, which means that there is no liquid inside the battery at all, and inorganic substances or organic polymer solids are used as the electrolyte of the battery.
Solid-state lithium battery technology uses glass compounds made of lithium and sodium as conductive substances, replacing the electrolyte of previous lithium batteries, and greatly improving the energy density of lithium batteries.
Solid-state batteries have the advantages of good safety, high energy density and strong cycling performance, but the disadvantage is that the impedance is large and the cost is high.Therefore, it is not widely used at present, but many companies have already begun to lay out research, such as CATL, BYD, Toyota and so on.Toyota said last week it had made a major breakthrough in solid-state battery technology that could halve the weight, volume and cost of batteries.
It is understood that the company has developed ways to improve the durability of batteries and believes it can now make solid-state batteries with a range of 1200 kilometers and a charging time of 10 minutes or less.Moreover, the company expects to start producing solid-state batteries for electric vehicles in 2027.This news is undoubtedly shocking, I believe many people are looking forward to the arrival of solid-state batteries.
We hope it can avoid the tragic accidents that have occurred in electric vehicles because of batteries in recent years, and also hope that it can be a qualifie “disruptor” in a new era, constantly optimize the field of power batteries, and promote scientific and technological progress.