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(One)What's The Frequently Asked Questions About The Battery ?

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(One)What's The Frequently Asked Questions About The Battery ?
Latest company news about (One)What's The Frequently Asked Questions About The Battery ?

 

This article is Herculesi original article, if you need to copy, please contact: david@herculesi.com, or by phone: +86-13632987139.

Do not copy without permition,Unauthorized duplication is a violation of applicable laws.

 

The Frequently Asked Questions About The Battery?

1. What is a battery?

Batteries are energy conversion and storage devices that convert chemical or physical energy into electrical energy through a reaction. The battery can be divided into a chemical battery and a physical battery depending on the energy converted from the battery. A chemical battery or chemical power source is a device that converts chemical energy into electrical energy. It consists of two different compositions of electrochemically active electrodes that make up the positive and negative electrodes. A chemical that provides media conduction acts as an electrolyte. When connected to an external carrier, it provides electrical energy by converting its internal chemical energy. .

 

A physical battery is a device that converts physical energy into electrical energy.

 

2. What is the difference between a primary battery and a secondary battery?

The main difference is the difference in active substances, the active material of the secondary battery is reversible, and the active material of the primary battery is not reversible. The self-discharge of the primary battery is much smaller than that of the secondary battery, but the internal resistance is much larger than that of the secondary battery, so the load capacity is low. In addition, the mass specific capacity and the volume specific capacity of the primary battery are larger than those of the general rechargeable battery.

 

3. What is the electrochemical principle of NiMH batteries?

Ni-MH batteries use Ni oxide as the positive electrode, hydrogen storage metal as the negative electrode, and lye (mainly KOH) as the electrolyte. When the nickel-hydrogen battery is charged:

Positive electrode reaction: Ni(OH)2 + OH- → NiOOH + H2O–e-

Negative reaction: M+H2O +e-→ MH+ OH-

When the NiMH battery is discharged:

Positive electrode reaction: NiOOH + H2O + e- → Ni(OH)2 + OH-

Negative reaction: MH+ OH- →M+H2O +e-

 

4. What is the electrochemical principle of a lithium ion battery?

The main component of the positive electrode of lithium ion battery is LiCoO2, and the negative electrode is mainly C. When charging,

Positive reaction: LiCoO2 → Li1-xCoO2 + xLi+ + xe-

Negative reaction: C + xLi+ + xe- → CLix

Total battery response: LiCoO2 + C → Li1-xCoO2 + CLix

The reverse reaction of the above reaction occurs upon discharge.

 

5. What are the commonly used standards for batteries?

Common IEC standards for batteries: The standard for nickel-metal hydride batteries is IEC61951-2:2003; the lithium-ion battery industry is generally based on UL or national standards.

 

The battery commonly used national standards: nickel-hydrogen battery standard is GB/T15100_1994, GB/T18288_2000; lithium battery standard is GB/T10077_1998, YD/T998_1999, GB/T18287_2000.

In addition, the battery standard is also the Japanese industry standard JIS C standard for batteries.

The IEC, the International Electrical Commission, is a worldwide standardization organization composed of national electrotechnical committees, which aims to promote standardization in the world of electrical and electronic fields. The IEC standard is a standard established by the International Electrotechnical Commission.

 

6. What is the main structural composition of NiMH batteries?

The main components of the nickel-hydrogen battery are: a positive electrode sheet (nickel oxide), a negative electrode sheet (hydrogen storage alloy), an electrolyte solution (mainly KOH), a separator paper, a sealing ring, a positive electrode cap, and a battery can.

 

7. What is the main structural composition of a lithium ion battery?

The main components of lithium-ion battery are: battery upper and lower cover, positive electrode sheet (active material is lithium cobalt oxide), separator (a special composite film), negative electrode (active material is carbon), organic electrolyte, battery case (divided into Steel shell and aluminum shell) and so on.

 

8. What is the internal resistance of the battery?

It refers to the resistance that current flows through the inside of the battery while the battery is working. It consists of two parts: ohmic internal resistance and polarization internal resistance. The large internal resistance of the battery will cause the battery discharge operating voltage to decrease and the discharge time to be shortened. The internal resistance is mainly affected by factors such as the material of the battery, the manufacturing process, and the structure of the battery. It is an important parameter to measure battery performance. Note: Generally, the internal resistance of the charge state is the standard. Measuring the internal resistance of the battery requires a special internal resistance meter and cannot be measured with a multimeter ohmmeter.

 

9. What is the nominal voltage?

The nominal voltage of the battery refers to the voltage that is exhibited during normal operation. The nominal voltage of the secondary nickel-cadmium nickel-hydrogen battery is 1.2V; the nominal voltage of the secondary lithium battery is 3.6V.

 

10. What is the open circuit voltage?

The open circuit voltage refers to the potential difference between the positive and negative terminals of the battery when the battery is not in operation, that is, when no current flows through the circuit. The working voltage, also called the terminal voltage, refers to the potential difference between the positive and negative terminals of the battery when the battery is in operation, that is, when there is current in the circuit.

 

11. What is the capacity of the battery?

The capacity of the battery is divided into rated capacity and actual capacity. The rated capacity of the battery means that the battery should be designed or manufactured to ensure that the battery should emit a minimum amount of electricity under certain discharge conditions. The IEC standard stipulates that the amount of electricity discharged by a nickel-cadmium and nickel-hydrogen battery at 20 °C ± 5 °C after being charged at 0.1 C for 16 hours and then discharged at 0.2 C to 1.0 V is the rated capacity of the battery, expressed as C5. For a lithium-ion battery, it is specified to be charged for 3 hours under normal-temperature, constant-current (1C)-constant voltage (4.2V) controlled charging conditions, and then discharged at 0.2C to 2.75V. The actual capacity of the battery refers to the actual amount of electricity discharged by the battery under certain discharge conditions, which is mainly affected by the discharge rate and temperature (so strictly speaking, the battery capacity should indicate the charge and discharge conditions). The unit of battery capacity is Ah, mAh (1Ah = 1000mAh).

 

12. What is the discharge residual capacity of the battery?

When a rechargeable battery is discharged with a large current (such as 1C or above), the "bottleneck effect" of the internal diffusion rate due to excessive current causes the battery to reach the terminal voltage when the capacity is not fully discharged, and then uses a small current such as 0.2C can continue to discharge until the capacity released by 1.0V / branch (nickel cadmium and nickel metal hydride battery) and 3.0V / branch (lithium battery) is called residual capacity.

 

13. What is a discharge platform?

The discharge platform of a nickel-hydrogen rechargeable battery generally refers to a voltage range in which the operating voltage of the battery is relatively stable when the battery is discharged under a certain discharge system, and the value thereof is related to the discharge current. The larger the current, the lower the value. The discharge platform of a lithium ion battery is generally a discharge time when a constant voltage is charged to a voltage of 4.2 V and the current is less than 0.01 C, and then discharged for 10 minutes, and discharged at a discharge current of any rate to 3.6 V. It is an important criterion for measuring the quality of a battery.

 

14. What is the identification method for rechargeable batteries specified by IEC?

According to the IEC standard, the mark of a nickel-hydrogen battery consists of five parts.

Battery type: HF, HR means nickel-hydrogen battery.

 

Battery size data: including the diameter and height of the round battery, the height, width, thickness and value of the square battery are separated by slashes. Unit: mm

 

Discharge characteristic symbol: L indicates that the appropriate discharge current rate is within 0.5C

M indicates that the suitable discharge current is within 0.5-3.5C.

H means that the suitable discharge current rate is within 3.5-7.0C.

X indicates that the battery can work at a high current discharge current of 7C-15C.

 

High temperature battery symbol: denoted by T

The battery connecting piece indicates that CF represents a connectionless piece, HH represents a connecting piece for a battery-shaped serial connection piece, and HB represents a connecting piece for battery-side series connection in parallel.

For example: HF18/07/49 means a square nickel-hydrogen battery with a width of 18mm, a thickness of 7mm and a height of 49mm.

KRMT33/62HH stands for nickel-cadmium battery with a discharge rate between 0.5C and 3.5. The high-temperature series single cell (without connection piece) has a diameter of 33mm and a height of 62mm.

 

According to the IEC61960 standard, the identification of secondary lithium batteries is as follows:

Battery identification: 3 letters, followed by 5 numbers (cylindrical) or 6 (square) numbers.

The first letter: indicates the negative electrode material of the battery. I—represents lithium ions with a built-in battery; L—represents a lithium metal electrode or a lithium alloy electrode.

 

The second letter: indicates the positive electrode material of the battery. C—cobalt-based electrode; N—nickel-based electrode; M—manganese-based electrode; V—vanadium-based electrode.

 

The third letter: indicates the shape of the battery. R—represents a cylindrical battery; L—represents a square battery.

 

Number: Cylindrical battery: 5 numbers indicate the diameter and height of the battery, respectively. The unit of diameter is in millimeters and the unit of height is one tenth of a millimeter. When any diameter or height is greater than or equal to 100mm, a diagonal line should be added between the two dimensions.

 

Square battery: 6 digits indicate the thickness, width and height of the battery, in millimeters. When any of the three dimensions is greater than or equal to 100mm, the size shall be slashed; if any of the three dimensions is less than 1mm, the letter "t" shall be added before the dimension, and the unit of this dimension is one tenth of a millimeter. 

 

For example, ICR18650 represents a cylindrical secondary lithium ion battery with a positive electrode material of cobalt and a diameter of approximately 18 mm and a height of approximately 65 mm.

 

ICP083448 represents a square secondary lithium ion battery having a positive electrode material of cobalt having a thickness of about 8 mm, a width of about 34 mm, and a height of about 48 mm.

 

ICP08/34/150 represents a square secondary lithium ion battery, the positive electrode material being cobalt, having a thickness of about 8 mm, a width of about 34 mm, and a height of about 150 mm.

 

ICPt73448 represents a square secondary lithium ion battery having a positive electrode material of cobalt having a thickness of about 0.7 mm, a width of about 34 mm, and a height of about 48 mm.

 

15. What are the packaging materials for the battery?

01) Do not dry meson (paper) such as fiber paper, double-sided tape

02) PVC film, trademark tube

03) Connecting piece: stainless steel piece, pure nickel piece, nickel-plated steel piece

04) Lead-out piece: stainless steel piece (easy to solder) pure nickel piece (spot welding)

05) Plug class

06) Protection components such as temperature control switch, overcurrent protector, current limiting resistor

07) Carton, carton

08) Plastic shells

 

16. What is the purpose of battery packaging, assembly and design?

01) Beautiful, brand
02) The battery voltage is limited. To obtain a higher voltage, multiple batteries must be connected in series.
03) Protect the battery to prevent short circuit and extend battery life
04) Size limit
05) Easy to transport

06) Special function design, such as waterproof, special exterior design.

 

17. What are the main characteristics of the secondary battery?
It mainly includes voltage, internal resistance, capacity, energy density, internal pressure, self-discharge rate, cycle life, sealing performance, safety performance, storage performance, appearance, etc. Others include overcharge, overdischarge, and corrosion resistance.

 

18. What are the battery reliability test items?
01) Cycle life
02) Different rate discharge characteristics
03) Different temperature discharge characteristics
04) Charging characteristics
05) Self-discharge characteristics
06) Storage characteristics
07) Overdischarge characteristics
08) Internal resistance characteristics at different temperatures
09) Temperature cycle test
10) Drop test
11) Vibration test
12) Capacity test
13) Internal resistance test
14) GMS test
15) High and low temperature impact test
16) Mechanical shock test
17) High temperature and high humidity test

 

19. What are the battery safety test items?
01) Short circuit test
02) Overcharge and over discharge test
03) Withstand voltage test
04) Impact test
05) Vibration test
06) Heating test
07) Fire test
09) Variable temperature cycle test
10) Trickle charge test
11) Free fall test
12) Low air pressure test
13) Forced discharge test
15) Hot plate test

17) Thermal shock test
19) Acupuncture test
20) Squeeze test
21) Heavy impact test

 

20. What are the common charging methods?
Nickel-metal hydride battery charging method:
01) Constant current charging: The charging current is a certain value in the whole charging process. This method is the most common;
02) Constant voltage charging: The charging power supply maintains a constant value at both ends during charging, and the current in the circuit gradually decreases as the battery voltage increases.
03) Constant current and constant voltage charging: The battery is first charged with constant current (CC). When the battery voltage rises to a certain value, the voltage remains unchanged (CV), and the current in the circuit drops to a small value, eventually reaching zero.

 

Lithium battery charging method:
Constant current constant voltage charging: The battery is first charged with constant current (CC). When the battery voltage rises to a certain value, the voltage remains unchanged (CV), and the current in the circuit drops to a small value, eventu
ally reaching zero.

 

This article is Herculesi original article, if you need to copy, please contact: david@herculesi.com, or by phone: +86-13632987139.

Do not copy without permition,Unauthorized duplication is a violation of applicable laws.

Pub Time : 2019-04-12 15:53:40 >> News list
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