This article is Herculesi original article, if you need to copy, please contact: email@example.com, or by phone: +86-13632987139.
Do not copy without permition,Unauthorized duplication is a violation of applicable laws.
How is the Global Power Battery Technology and Status?
1.1. Battery formation: different shapes and advantages.
LG Chem and SKI: In the packaging of power batteries, they are designed with laminated soft packs. The biggest difference between a soft lithium battery and a cylindrical or square battery is the aluminum plastic film, which is a key part of the soft lithium battery and a technically difficult one. The soft pack battery mainly has good safety performance (the soft pack battery is packaged in aluminum plastic film on the structure, when the safety problem occurs, the soft pack battery will generally blow out and will not explode), and the weight is light (the soft pack battery is equal in weight) Capacity aluminum shell lithium battery 10%-20%), small internal resistance, good cycle performance, flexible design (variable shape and shape, can be thinner, can be customized according to customer needs, develop new battery models) and many more advantage. The disadvantages of the soft pack battery are mainly poor consistency, high cost, easy liquid leakage, and high technical threshold.
Samsung SDI and CATL: The main focus of the power battery package is square. Square hard shell batteries are capable of producing large capacity single cells. In addition, the square battery case is mostly made of aluminum alloy, stainless steel, etc. The inside adopts the winding or lamination process, which is better than the soft pack battery for the protection of the battery core. The safety of the battery core is also better than that of the cylindrical battery. Great improvement. The shortage of square batteries is more than the number of models, and the process is difficult to unify. At present, the square battery to module group efficiency can reach 88%, which is higher than the group efficiency of soft and cylindrical batteries. In addition to producing square batteries, Samsung SDI also produces cylindrical batteries of 18650 and 21700 specifications, mainly used in the field of consumer batteries. Similarly, in addition to the main square cells, CATL also supplies soft-pack batteries in small batches in 2018. CATL has more single-capacity specifications, mainly including 37Ah, 43Ah, 51Ah, 72Ah, 148Ah, and 153Ah. Compared with Samsung SDI, CATL increases the capacity of the battery by increasing the thickness of the battery, thereby increasing its energy density to a certain extent. However, CATL is slightly worse than the Samsung SDI in terms of manufacturing process and module integration lightweight of the battery.
Panasonic Power Battery: The NCA cathode material is used. Due to the easy gas production characteristics of the NCA cathode material during charge and discharge, the core package is mainly cylindrical. The advantages of cylindrical batteries are mainly the mature production process, high product yield, such as 18650, 21700 and other uniform specifications, the overall cost has an advantage. However, the disadvantages of cylindrical batteries are also obvious. Because of the poor safety, NCA cylindrical batteries need to be equipped with a very good thermal management system. Modules and PACKs are difficult to integrate and have low energy density utilization. In addition, in addition to the supply of Tesla's cylindrical battery, Panasonic also supplies square batteries to other car manufacturers, mainly supporting HV/PHV models. For HV/PHV models, it mainly breaks through high output power/high capacity. For BEV models. , to break through to high energy density.
Generally speaking, among the three types of batteries, such as soft pack, cylinder and square, the square core is the least difficult in the module integration process, the module also facilitates the arrangement and integration of the battery PACK, and the large-capacity battery core facilitates the simplified battery management system. Complexity is also easy to design a thermal management system for battery PACK.
1.2. Chemical system: high-nickel ternary, the general trend.
LG Chem: At present, the soft-packed power battery mainly uses a chemical system in which NCM622 is doped with LMO, graphite is used as a negative electrode, and a separator is coated. After that, the positive electrode material will develop into a 712 system. The batteries of the NCM811 system are mainly cylindrical and used on electric buses.
Samsung SDI: The current power battery is also based on the chemical system of the positive NCM 622+ graphite negative electrode. It also mass-produces the positive electrode material of NCA+LMO. At present, Samsung SDI's single lithium-ion battery product series are relatively complete, and the standard products include high energy. BEV (pure electric) 60Ah, 94Ah battery, PHEV (plug-in hybrid electric vehicle) 26Ah, 37Ah battery (26Ah will be gradually replaced by 37Ah), HEV (hybrid electric vehicle) 5.2Ah, 5.9Ah battery, and with super capacitor Combined with high power batteries (4.0Ah, 11Ah) for low voltage systems (LVS).
Panasonic battery: Panasonic's current cylindrical power battery is mainly the chemical system of NCA + silicon carbon negative electrode. According to the measured data of A2Mac1, Tesla's Panasonic cylindrical battery model gradually transitioned from Model 18 and Model X's 18650 to Model 3's 21700. The NCA cathode material ratio was upgraded from Ni:Co:Al=0.82:0.15:0.03 to Ni: Co: Al = 0.9: 0.05: 0.05, the nickel content is further improved, and the cobalt content is reduced to 0.05%, which greatly reduces the raw material cost of the battery, ahead of NCM's 811 chemical system.
SKI battery: SKI's current soft-package battery cathode material is mainly NCM622. It should be developed into NCM811 mixed system in 2019. In 2020, it will develop into 100% NCM811 system. After 2021, Ni content will be expected to reach 90%. The anode material is currently made of graphite, and it is expected that a silicon carbon anode will be used after 2021.
CATL: At present, CATL's square battery cathode material is mainly NCM523, which should be developed into NCM811 system in 2019. The anode material is currently mainly made of graphite, and it is expected that a silicon carbon anode will be used after 2020.
1.3. Group efficiency: square is the best, the most difficult cylinder.
LG Chem and SKI: Although the current energy density of the soft pack battery is higher than that of the square cell, it is lower in group efficiency, and the current energy density conversion rate is expected to be around 80%.
Samsung SDI and CATL: Because the battery core is in the shape of a square battery, the group efficiency is high, and the highest energy density conversion efficiency of the cell to the module can be as high as 90%.
Panasonic battery: The energy density of the monomer is high, but due to the large number of monomers, many structural aids are needed, the system integration is difficult, and the integration efficiency of the battery to the module and the battery pack is low. The 18650 was upgraded to 21700, and the number of single-units was reduced, which improved the integration efficiency to some extent. The Tesla Model 3 is available in two sizes with an energy density conversion efficiency of up to 84%. Model X (90kWh version) battery pack consists of 7104 batteries 96S74P, energy density 148.4Wh / kg, integrated efficiency is 60.41%; Model 3 battery pack consists of 4416 batteries, energy density 167Wh / kg, integration efficiency It is 64.2%.
1.4. Energy density: Panasonic leads, Samsung is slower
LG Chem: The energy density of the cell is about 250Wh/kg, and the volumetric energy density is around 530Wh/L, which can meet the cruising range of 400km.
Samsung SDI: In terms of energy density improvement, unlike the domestic Wh/kg, the standard used is Wh/L. Samsung believes that Wh/L is more important for passenger cars. At present, Samsung's third-generation power battery energy density is 550Wh / L, equivalent to 210-230Wh / kg, has achieved mass production.
Panasonic: According to the measured data of A2Mac1, Panasonic is upgraded from 3.2Ah of NCR 18650B model to 4.8Ah of 21700NCA model, and the voltage platform is increased from 3.6V to 3.7V. With the increase of monomer capacity and cell voltage, the energy density is increased from 245.1Wh/kg of NCR 18650B to 260Wh/kg of 21700NCA, which can be increased to 300Wh/kg, and 21700 is much higher than 18650 in terms of volumetric energy density. The calculation shows that the 21700 cells of Panasonic have a volumetric energy density of up to 732Wh/L.
SKI: The energy density of 64Ah soft-packed cells mass-produced in 2018 can reach 260Wh/kg, and the volumetric energy density can reach 540Wh/L.
CATL: The current mass-produced 153Ah cell has an energy density of 217Wh/kg and a volumetric energy density of 510Wh/L.
2.1. Development path of battery technology
LG Chem: The LG battery is still in the form of a soft pack. It will be lengthened according to the needs of the vehicle. There are two main advantages: the energy density conversion rate from the battery core to the module, and the energy density (about 13% increase). ). The module form adopts VDA module and long module form, minus the heat dissipation aluminum plate adopts the soft edge edge thermal conductive adhesive form to improve the heat dissipation performance, simplify the module structure, improve the energy density conversion rate of the battery core to the module, and improve the module energy. density. From 2020 to 2022, the monomer energy density will reach 300Wh/kg, and the volumetric energy density will reach 700Wh/L, which can meet the cruising range of 500km. The energy density will reach 330Wh/kg in 2023-2024, which can meet the cruising range of 600km.
Samsung SDI: The next generation of 3.5-generation products can reach an energy density of 630Wh/L and is expected to be mass-produced in 2019. At the same time, Samsung is also intensifying efforts to develop the fourth generation of batteries, the energy density can reach 700Wh / L, equivalent to 270-280Wh / kg, is expected to mass production around 2021 ~ 2022, after that the fifth generation of batteries will reach 800Wh / L equivalent At 300Wh/kg, this product will be mass-produced after 2023. 300Wh/kg is already the energy density limit for lithium battery energy storage. It needs to be further improved by changing battery innovation in 2023-2025. At present, Samsung is also doing basic research and development of new batteries, samples can be made, but the distance from industrialization Production is still far away: In 2015, Samsung SDI's all solid-state battery prototype samples can reach 300Wh / kg (using sulfide solid electrolyte), as for lithium metal batteries, lithium air batteries, Samsung SDI is now only laboratory development, The real application may take 10 years, when the energy density is expected to reach 900Wh/kg, and the target of 700km can be driven on a single charge.
Panasonic: Panasonic's power battery future development direction is mainly divided into two categories, square batteries are mainly used in high-power output HV and PHEV fields, cylindrical batteries are mainly used in high-energy density EV field. And by further optimizing the nickel-cobalt content ratio, we will develop new materials that continue to lead the advantages of high energy density. Develop new structural battery cells to increase their safety and capacity.
SKI: SKI will upgrade from NCM 622 to NCM 811 NCM 622 system in 2019. The anode material will be upgraded from graphite to silicon carbon anode in 2021-2022. Product specifications will include 63Ah, 70Ah, 75Ah, 80Ah, 86Ah, 90Ah, etc. The service life will guarantee 240,000 kilometers in 10 years, and the fast charging will meet the 100km cruising range in 10min. The energy density target for 2020 is 284Wh/kg, the energy density target for 2021 is 294Wh/kg, and the energy density for 2022 is expected to reach 314Wh/kg. With the use of silicon carbon anode, the energy density will reach 319Wh/kg in 2023.
CATL: The future development trend of CATL can be analyzed from several aspects such as material system, battery core, module and PACK.
In terms of material system: CATL's current cathode material is mainly NCM 523. It is expected to mass produce NCM 811 system battery at the end of 2019. In addition to the development of cathode material in high nickel direction, CATL has been committed to the research and development of cathode materials for high voltage platforms, and is expected to be in 2020. After the year, mass production and improvement of the energy density of the cell; at the same time, around 2020, CATL will use silicon carbon anode material to increase the theoretical energy density of the anode to increase the energy density of the cell; the electrolyte is optimized and formulated with new additives. It makes it more resistant to high pressure and thermal stability; the diaphragm is mainly coated with a wet diaphragm.
Battery: CATL currently achieves 153Ah of single cell capacity by thickening the cell size, significantly improving the energy density of its cells. The future development direction may be within 100mm from the current 108mm, which is conducive to The flat battery PACK design makes it easier to design the chassis of the vehicle and enhance the space experience inside the body. In addition, CATL has accumulated a lot of fast charging cores. At present, 43Ah ternary fast charging products have been mass-produced. The maximum charging rate can reach 4C, that is, the battery can be fully charged in 25 minutes. After the cost is improved, the electric vehicle will be completely solved. The pain point of slow charging. In 2019, the energy density of the battery will reach 230Wh/kg, and the energy density of the battery in 2020-2021 will reach 265Wh/kg.
Module: In order to facilitate the integration of battery pack PACK, CATL will introduce Combo module, Sandwich module and low-level module outside the standard module in the future, and the energy density and conversion rate will be significantly improved. The integration efficiency will increase from 83% in 2018 to 86% in 2019, 89%-90% in 2020, and 91%-92% in 2021-2022.
PACK: The energy density of CATL2018 battery PACK is 150-160Wh/kg, the energy density will reach 180Wh/kg from 2019-2020, and the energy density will reach 210Wh/kg after 2021. The cooling system is water-cooled, and the cooling plate is in the form of a harmonica tube. In 2019, it will be integrated with the battery pack tray to improve integration efficiency. The integration efficiency is around 72% in 2018, and is expected to increase to 76% in 2019, and is expected to reach 80% in 2021.
2.2. Development trend of material system.
LG Chem will achieve 70% nickel, 10% cobalt and 20% manganese to reach 712 from 622. NCMA is a medium- and long-term goal of LG. By adding alumina to NCM, the nickel content is close to 90% and the cobalt content is less than 10%. The current situation is that 622 soft pack batteries are in mass production, and the 712 is being actively developed, which will be mass-produced within two to three years. NCM811 cathode material is more suitable for cylindrical batteries and will be mass-produced for electric buses. The main development direction of the third generation battery is to increase energy density (increasing nickel content), reduce cost (reduced cobalt content) and improve charging performance (introduction of artificial Graphite anode).
Samsung SDI will use NCA materials in the future, because lithium ions will easily form some residue on the surface of NCA during the reciprocating use, which will affect its service life. Samsung SDI reduces the residue and improves its service life by applying a metal coating on the surface of the NCA.
The cathode materials developed by Panasonic include lithium nickel cobalt manganese oxide, lithium nickel cobalt aluminate, etc., and have been used in large-scale applications. In order to solve the problems of low thermal stability and safety caused by nickel oxide, Panasonic has carried out nano-coating treatment on the surface of the positive electrode material, with particular emphasis on improving safety through technologies such as Panasonic Solid Solution (PSS). This technology uses "Heat Resistant Layer" (HRL) technology in new anodes.
SKI's current soft-package battery cathode material is mainly NCM622. It should be developed into NCM811 hybrid system in 2019. In 2020, it will develop into 100% NCM811 system. After 2021, Ni content is expected to reach 90%. The anode material is currently made of graphite, and it is expected that a silicon carbon anode will be used after 2021.
CATL's current cathode material is mainly NCM 523. It is expected to mass produce NCM 811 battery at the end of 2019. In addition to the development of high-nickel cathode materials, CATL has been working on the development of cathode materials for high-voltage platforms and is expected to be mass-produced after 2020. And improve the energy density of the battery; at the same time, around 2020, CATL will use silicon carbon anode material to increase the theoretical energy density of the anode to increase the energy density of the battery; the electrolyte is optimized for high pressure by optimizing the formulation and adding new additives. The performance and thermal stability are better; the diaphragm is mainly coated with a wet diaphragm.
Contact Person: Mr. Sales Manager