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What is Lithium ion Battery

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What is Lithium ion Battery
Latest company news about What is Lithium ion Battery


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What is Lithium ion Battery?


We often talk about ternary lithium batteries or iron-lithium batteries, which are named after the positive active material. This article summarizes six common lithium battery types and their main performance parameters.


As we all know, the specific parameters of the batteries of the same technical route are not exactly the same. The general level of the current parameters is shown in this paper. The six lithium batteries include: LiCoO2, LiMn2O4, LiNiMnCoO2 or NMC, LiNiCoAlO2 or NCA, LiFePO4 , lithium titanate (Li4Ti5O12).


Lithium cobaltate (LiCoO2)
Its high specific energy makes lithium cobalt oxide a popular choice for mobile phones, notebooks and digital cameras. The battery consists of a cobalt oxide cathode and a graphite carbon anode. The cathode has a layered structure in which lithium ions move from the anode to the cathode during discharge, and the charging process flows in the opposite direction. The structure is as shown below.

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The cathode has a layered structure. During discharge, lithium ions move from the anode to the cathode; during charging, the flow flows from the cathode to the anode.


Lithium cobalt oxide has the disadvantage of relatively short life, low thermal stability and limited load capacity (specific power). Like other cobalt-mixed lithium-ion batteries, lithium cobalt oxide uses a graphite anode, and its cycle life is mainly limited by the solid electrolyte interface (SEI), which is mainly manifested by the gradual thickening of the SEI film, and the anodic plating of the fast charging or low-temperature charging process. Lithium problem. Newer material systems add nickel, manganese and/or aluminum to increase life, load capacity and reduce costs.


Lithium cobaltate should not be charged and discharged at a current higher than the capacity. This means that an 18650 battery with 2,400 m Ah can only be charged and discharged at 2,400 m A or less. Forced rapid charging or application of loads above 2400 m A can cause stresses due to overheating and overload. For the best fast charging, the manufacturer recommends a charge rate of 0.8C or about 2,000m A. The battery protection circuit limits the charging and discharging rate of the energy unit to a safe level of about 1C.



Hexagonal spider diagrams summarize the performance of lithium cobalt oxide in terms of specific energy or capacity associated with operation; specific power or ability to provide large currents; safety; performance in high and low temperature environments; lifetime including calendar life and cycle life; . Other important features not shown in the spider map include toxicity, fast charging capability, self-discharge, and shelf life.


Due to the high cost of cobalt and the significant performance improvements brought about by mixing materials with other active cathode materials, lithium cobalt oxide is being gradually replaced by lithium manganate, especially NMC and NCA. (See below for a description of NMC and NCA.)

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Lithium cobaltate excels in high specific energy, but only provides general performance in terms of power characteristics, safety and cycle life.

Characteristics of lithium cobalt oxide:
Lithium cobalt oxide Cathode: LiCoO2 (around 60% Co), Anode: graphite
Voltage 3.6V 2.5V - 4.2V
Capacity 150 - 200Wh/KG
Rate of charge 0.7C - 1C, More than 1C charging will shorten battery life
Rate of discharge 1C, More than 1C dicharge will shorten battery life
Cycle life 500-1000, Based on depth of discharge, load, temperature
Thermal runaway 150℃, 302℉
Application Phone, Laptop, Pad, Camera
Comments high energy ratio, limited power ratio. Cobalt is expensive and is used as an energy battery


Lithium manganate (LiMn2O4)
The spinel lithium manganate battery was first published in a 1983 material research report. In 1996, Moli Energy commercialized lithium-ion batteries with lithium manganate as the cathode material. The architecture forms a three-dimensional spinel structure that improves ion flow on the electrodes, reducing internal resistance and improving current carrying capacity. Another advantage of spinel is its high thermal stability and improved safety, but limited cycle and calendar life.


Low battery internal resistance enables fast charging and high current discharge. 18650 type battery, lithium manganate battery can discharge at 20-30A, and has a moderate heat accumulation. It is also possible to apply a load pulse of up to 50A1 seconds. Continued high loads at this current can cause heat build-up and the battery temperature must not exceed 80 ° C (176 ° F). Lithium manganate is used in power tools, medical devices, and hybrid and pure electric vehicles.

The following figure illustrates the formation of a three-dimensional crystal skeleton on the cathode of a lithium manganate battery. The spinel structure is usually composed of a diamond shape connected to a crystal lattice, which generally occurs after the battery is formed.


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The lithium manganate cathode is crystallized to form a three-dimensional skeleton structure which is formed after the formation. Spinel provides low electrical resistance but lower specific energy than lithium cobaltate.


The capacity of lithium manganate is about one-third lower than that of lithium cobaltate. Design flexibility allows engineers to choose to maximize battery life or increase maximum load current (specific power) or capacity (specific energy). For example, the long-life version of the 18650 battery has a modest capacity of 1,100m Ah; the high-capacity version has a capacity of 1,500m Ah.


The figure below shows a spider diagram of a typical lithium manganate battery. These characteristic parameters seem to be less than ideal, but the new design has improved in terms of power, safety and longevity. Lithium manganate batteries are no longer common today; they are only used in special cases.

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Despite the overall performance, the new lithium manganate design improves power, safety and longevity.


Most lithium manganate is mixed with lithium nickel manganese cobalt oxide (NMC) to increase specific energy and extend life. This combination brings the best performance of every system, and most electric vehicles, such as the Nissan Leaf, the Chevrolet Volt and the BMW i3, use LMO (NMC). The LMO part of the battery can reach around 30%, which can provide higher current during acceleration; the NMC part provides a long cruising range.


Lithium ion battery research tends to combine lithium manganate with cobalt, nickel, manganese and/or aluminum as the active cathode material. In some architectures, a small amount of silicon is added to the anode. This provides a 25% capacity increase; however, silicon expands and contracts with charge and discharge, causing mechanical stress, which is often closely related to short cycle life.


These three active metals and silicon reinforcement can be conveniently selected to increase specific energy (capacity), specific power (load capacity) or lifetime. Consumer batteries require large capacity, while industrial applications require battery systems, have good load capacity, long life, and provide safe and reliable service.

Characteristics of Lithium Manganate Oxide (LMO or Li-Mn)
Lithium Manganate Oxide: Cathode: LiMn2O4, Anode: graphite.
Voltage 3.7V (3.8V) 2.5V - 4.2V
Capacity 100 - 150Wh/KG
Rate of charge 0.7C - 1C, Max. 3C
Rate of discharge 1C-10C, peak 30C 5S, cut off 2.5V
Cycle life 300-700, Based on depth of discharge, load, temperature
Thermal runaway 250℃, 482℉
Application Electrical tools, Medical equipment, Electric power transmission system
Comments High power but low energy, safer than lithium cobalt oxide, usually mixed with NMC to improve performance


Lithium nickel cobalt manganese oxide (LiNiMnCoO 2 or NMC)
One of the most successful lithium ion systems is the cathode combination of nickel manganese cobalt (NMC). Similar to lithium manganate, this system can be customized for use as an energy battery or a power battery. For example, an NMC in an 18650 battery under medium load conditions has a capacity of approximately 2,800 m Ah and can provide a 4A to 5A discharge current; the same type of NMC is optimized for a specific power with a capacity of only 2,000m Ah, but is available 20A continuous discharge current. The silicon-based anode will reach more than 4000m Ah, but the load capacity is reduced and the cycle life is shortened. The silicon added to the graphite has defects in that the anode expands and contracts with charging and discharging, so that the mechanical stress of the battery is largely unstable.


The secret of NMC lies in the combination of nickel and manganese. Similar to this is the salt, in which the main components sodium and chloride are themselves toxic, but they are mixed as a seasoning salt and a food preservative. Nickel is known for its high specific energy, but its stability is poor; the spinel structure can achieve low internal resistance but low specific energy. The two active metals have complementary advantages.


The NMC is the battery of choice for power tools, electric bikes and other electric power systems. The cathode combination is typically one-third nickel, one-third manganese and one-third cobalt, also known as 1-1-1. This provides a unique blend that also reduces raw material costs due to reduced cobalt content. Another successful combination is NCM, which contains 5 parts nickel, 3 parts cobalt and 2 parts manganese (5-3-2). Other different amounts of cathode material combinations can also be used.


Due to the high cost of cobalt, battery manufacturers have switched from cobalt to nickel cathodes. Nickel-based systems have higher energy density, lower cost, and longer cycle life than cobalt-based batteries, but their voltages are slightly lower.

New electrolytes and additives can charge a single battery to more than 4.4V, increasing power. 

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NMC has good overall performance and excels in terms of specific energy. This battery is the first choice for electric vehicles with the lowest self-heating rate.


Due to the economical and comprehensive performance of the system, NMC hybrid lithium-ion batteries are receiving more and more attention. The three active materials of nickel, manganese and cobalt can be easily mixed to suit the wide range of applications for automotive and energy storage systems (EES) that require frequent cycles. The diversity of the NMC family is growing.


Characteristics of Lithium nickel manganese cobalt oxide
Lithium nickel manganese cobalt oxide Cathode: LiNiMnCoO2, Anode: graphite.
Voltage 3.7V (3.6V) 2.5V - 4.2V
Capacity 150 - 220Wh/KG
Rate of charge 0.7C - 1C, More than 1C charging will shorten battery life
Rate of discharge 1C-3C, cut off 2.5V
Cycle life 1000 - 2000, Based on depth of discharge, load, temperature
Thermal runaway 210℃, 410℉
Application Electric Bike, Car, Medical equipment, industry
Comments High power & capacity


Lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4)
In 1996, the University of Texas discovered that phosphate can be used as a cathode material for rechargeable lithium batteries. Lithium phosphate has good electrochemical properties and low electrical resistance. This is achieved by a nanoscale phosphate cathode material. The main advantages are high current rating and long cycle life; good thermal stability, enhanced safety and tolerance for abuse.


Lithium phosphate is more resistant to all charging conditions and remains less stressful than other lithium ion systems if maintained at high voltage for extended periods of time. The disadvantage is that the lower 3.2V battery nominal voltage makes the specific energy lower than the cobalt doped lithium ion battery. For most batteries, low temperatures can degrade performance, increasing storage temperatures can shorten the lifespan, and lithium phosphate is no exception. Lithium phosphate has a higher self-discharge than other lithium-ion batteries, which can cause aging and even balance problems, although it can be compensated by using high-quality batteries or using advanced battery management systems, but both methods are increased. The cost of the battery pack. Battery life is very sensitive to impurities in the manufacturing process and cannot withstand the doping of moisture. Due to the presence of moisture impurities, some batteries have a minimum life of only 50 cycles. Figure 9 summarizes the properties of lithium phosphate.


Lithium phosphate is commonly used instead of lead acid starter batteries. Four series cells produce 12.80V, similar to the voltage in series with six 2V lead acid batteries. The vehicle charges lead acid to 14.40V (2.40V/battery) and remains in a floating state. The purpose of floating charge is to maintain a full charge level and prevent sulphation of lead-acid batteries.


By connecting four lithium phosphate batteries in series, each battery has a voltage of 3.60V, which is the correct full charge voltage. At this point, you should disconnect the charge, but continue charging while driving. Lithium phosphate tolerates some overcharging; however, since most vehicles maintain a voltage of 14.40V for long periods of long travel, it may increase the mechanical stress of the lithium phosphate battery. Time will tell us how long lithium phosphate can be used as a replacement for lead-acid batteries. Low temperatures also reduce the performance of lithium ions and may affect the ability to start in extreme conditions.

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Lithium phosphate has good safety and long life, moderate specific energy and enhanced self-discharge capacity.


Characteristics of LiFePO4 (LFP)
LiFePO4 (LFP) Cathode: LiFePO4, Anode: graphite.
Voltage 3.2V (3.3V) 2.5V - 3.65V
Capacity 90 - 120Wh/KG
Rate of charge 1C
Rate of discharge 1C-25C, cut off 2.5V
Cycle life 1000 - 2000, Based on depth of discharge, load, temperature
Thermal runaway 270℃, 518℉
Application Electric Bike, Car, UPS, Energy storage, industry
Comments High power, One of the safest lithium ions


Nickel cobalt aluminum aluminate (LiNiCoAlO2 or NCA)
Nickel cobalt lithium aluminate batteries or NCA have been used since 1999. It has a higher specific energy, and a fairly good specific power and long service life are similar to NMC. Less than flattering is security and cost. Figure 11 summarizes the six key features. NCA is a further development of lithium nickel oxide; the addition of aluminum gives the battery better chemical stability.

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High energy and power density and good service life make NCA a candidate for EV power systems. High costs and marginal security have a negative impact.

Characteristics of Lithium nickel cobalt aluminum oxide
Lithium nickel cobalt aluminum oxide (NCA) Cathode: LiNiCoAIO2, Anode: graphite.
Voltage 3.6V 2.5V - 4.2V
Capacity 200 - 300Wh/KG
Rate of charge 0.7C
Rate of discharge 1C - 3C, cut off 2.5V
Cycle life 500, Based on depth of discharge, load, temperature
Thermal runaway 150℃, 302℉
Application Electric Bike, Car, UPS, Energy storage, Electric powertrain (Tesla)
Comments Energy battery


Lithium titanate (Li4Ti5O12)
Since the 1980s, lithium titanate anode batteries have been known. Lithium titanate replaces graphite in the anode of a typical lithium ion battery, and the material forms a spinel structure. The cathode can be lithium manganate or NMC. Lithium titanate has a nominal battery voltage of 2.40V, which can be quickly charged and provides a high discharge current of 10C. It is said that the number of cycles is higher than the number of cycles of a conventional lithium ion battery. Lithium titanate is safe and has excellent low temperature discharge characteristics, achieving 80% capacity at -30 ° C ( -22 ° F).


LTO (usually Li4Ti5 O 12) has zero strain, no SEI film formation and no lithium plating during fast charging and low temperature charging, thus having better charge and discharge performance than conventional cobalt blended Li-ion and graphite anodes. The thermal stability at high temperatures is also better than other lithium ion systems; however, batteries are expensive. The specific energy is low, only 65W h/kg, which is equivalent to NiCd. Lithium titanate was charged to 2.80V and at the end of the discharge was 1.80V. Figure 13 shows the characteristics of a lithium titanate battery. Typical uses are electric powertrains, UPS and solar streetlights.

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Lithium titanate excels in safety, low temperature performance and longevity. Efforts are being made to increase specific energy and reduce costs.

Characteristics of LITHIUM TITANATE (LTO)
LITHIUM TITANATE (LTO) Cathode: NMC or LiMn2O4, Anode: Li4Ti5O12
Voltage 2.4V 1.8V - 2.85V
Capacity 50 - 80Wh/KG
Rate of charge 1C - 5C
Rate of discharge 10C - 30C, cut off 1.8V
Cycle life 3000 - 7000, Based on depth of discharge, load, temperature
Thermal runaway One of the safest lithium-ion batteries
Application UPS, Electric powertrain (Mitsubishi i-MiEV, Honda Fit EV)
Comments Long life, fastest charge, Wide temperature range, Expensive, the safest lithium-ion batteries


Typical specific energy of lead, nickel and lithium based batteries

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While lithium aluminum (NCA) is a clear winner by storing more capacity than other systems, it is only suitable for power usage in specific scenarios. Lithium manganate (LMO) and lithium phosphate (LFP) are superior in terms of power and thermal stability. Lithium titanate (LTO) may have a lower capacity, but it has a longer life than most other batteries and has the best low temperature performance.


NCA enjoys the highest specific energy; however, lithium manganate and lithium iron phosphate are superior in specific power and thermal stability. Lithium titanate has the best service life.

Pub Time : 2019-04-08 13:42:28 >> News list
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